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Stimulating Appetite And Nursing management By Nurse Ibrahim Isah Musa RN, HND NS, BNSc
Date Posted: 06/Apr/2018
Definition 
Any Substance (i.e. drugs, food or hormones) or strategies (e.g. oral care) that can be used to stimulate appetite in order to increase eating desire in anyone.
 
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger. Appealing foods can stimulate appetite even when hunger is absent, although appetite can be greatly reduced by satiety. Appetite exists in all higher life-forms, and serves to regulate adequate energy intake to maintain metabolic needs. It is regulated by a close interplay between the type of food, digestive tract and the brain. Appetite has a relationship with every individual's behavior.
 
A loss of appetite occurs when you have a low desire to eat. Different factors can cause poor appetite, including mental and physical illness. If your lack of appetite last more than a couple of days, it can cause weight loss or malnutrition. Not having appetite can befrustrating for any one especially people who are underweight and trying to gain weight or build mass.
 
Causes 
There are various causes that may lead to decrease appetite and subsequently lead to unwanted weight loss 
i. Medical conditions (e.g. common malaria, gastritis and stomatitis and so on)
ii. Psychological and psychiatric disorders (e.g. anxiety and depression)
iii. Eating disorders (e.g. anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa)
iv. Alcoholism 
v. Prematurity
vi. Congenital malformation (e.g. clef plate)
vii. Old age 
viii. Pharmacological agent (e.g. digoxin hydralazine)
ix. Visual influence. 
 
Sign and symptoms 
Patient with decrease in appetite usually present the following signs and symptoms: 
Nausea and vomiting 
Regurgitation and rumination
Lump in the throat 
Psychological disturbance 
Fatigue
Anxious
Anemia
Dehydration
Electrolyte imbalance (e.g. hypocalcaemia and hypocalcaemia)
 
Nursing management 
Assess patient general conditions and re assure patient before and during meal 
Give patient oral toilet before and after meal 
Provide privacy and allow patient to eat in confortable place needed 
Give light exercise for 10-15 minute before eating this help to improve appetite 
Administer prescribe appetite stimulant that help in stimulating patient appetite 
Avoid any food or beverages that has no over powering smell 
Provide patient with different choice of menu
Make food a pleasant experience allow patient to eat in attractive setting, playing his favorite music
Provide patients with snacks between meal and bed time choose food high in calorie and protein 
Prove patient with small and frequent food 
Continue to re assure patient allay his fear and anxiety.
 
Education on patient on discharge 
i. Advice patient to eat nutrient rich foods 
iii. Advice patient to add more calories to his meal 
iv. Advice patientmake meal time an enjoyable and social activity 
v. patient should learn on how to schedule meal time 
vi. Advice patient not to skip breakfast 
vii. Eat less fiber 
viii. Eat more of your favorite food 
 
Nursing diagnoses in patient with a decrease appetite 
Anxiety related to decrease appetite 
Risk for unstable blood glucose level
Risk for metabolic imbalance syndrome 
Risk for imbalance fluid volume 
Nursing intervention 
Anxiety related to decrease appetite 
Re-assure patient 
Stay with patient to allay fear and anxiety during eating 
Make meal time a joy able one 
Risk for unstable blood glucose level
Provide oral care  
Encourage patient to eat high calorie diet
Encourage patient on frequent food intake 
Measure patient blood glucose level 
Risk for imbalance fluid volume 
Give fluid between diet and after dietary intake 
Administer calorie rich fluid 
Monitor input and output balance  
Patient out come 
Patient is free from anxiety 
Patient fluid volume is restored 
Patient nutritional status is stable 
 
By Nurse Ibrahim Isah Musa RN, HND NS, BNSc

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